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J Small Anim Pract. 2004 May;45(5):238-43.

Efficacy of combined cyclosporine A and ketoconazole treatment of anal furunculosis.

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Small Animal Hospital, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L7 7EX.


Cyclosporine A and ketoconazole were used as a combined therapy to treat 19 dogs with anal furunculosis. Complete resolution of all lesions was achieved in three to 10 weeks, but recurrences occurred in seven of the 19 dogs (36.8 per cent), with remission periods extending from one to six months for these dogs. Adverse effects of treatment included excessive hair loss, intermittent lethargy, vomiting and decreased appetite in some dogs, but none of the signs were considered serious. The results of treatment are comparable with, if not better than, the surgical alternatives. There is an approximate 70 per cent cost saving over the use of cyclosporine alone.

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