Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Pathol. 2004 Jun;164(6):2101-7.

Endometrial angiopoietin expression and modulation by thrombin and steroid hormones: a mechanism for abnormal angiogenesis following long-term progestin-only contraception.

Author information

Department of Obstetrics, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8063, USA.


The angiopoietins (Ang) are endothelial cell-related factors necessary for the development and maintenance of all vessels. Altering the expression of these proteins would be expected to result in aberrant angiogenesis. Indeed the fragile endometrial vasculature and bleeding observed in women treated with long-term progestin-only contraceptives has been associated with changes in the expression of Ang-1 and Ang-2. Since bleeding would result in thrombin formation, we have assessed the effects of thrombin on the expression of the Angs in human endometrial cells. This study shows that thrombin significantly reduces the expression of Ang-1 protein and mRNA expression in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) and minimally decreases the production of Ang-2 protein in human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs). Hence the presence of thrombin due to aberrant bleeding could affect the angiogenic potential of the endometrium, creating a feed forward loop resulting in more thrombin, weak vasculature, and more bleeding. In addition, since the exact localization of Ang in the human endometrium remains a subject of controversy, we have addressed this issue in an in vivo system by analyzing the expression of Angs by microdissection of HESCs, HEECs, and human endometrial glandular epithelial cells followed by real time, quantitative RT-PCR.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center