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Pediatr Clin North Am. 2004 Jun;51(3):639-54, viii.

Abnormal fetal growth: intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, large for gestational age.

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  • 1Division of Neonatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, MS 213, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.


The two extremes of abnormal fetal growth are restricted growth and excessive growth, both of which originate from alterations in the uterine metabolic milieu. The fetus must adapt to these conditions to survive. In both instances, however, the inciting insult and the subsequent adaptation of the fetus carry long-term health consequences. In some instances, these changes may have generational implications. Counseling and care by pediatricians should be directed at the continuum of age ranges, including the expectant mother, the newborn, the child and adolescent, and future generations.

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