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Indian J Med Res. 2004 Apr;119(4):162-4.

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor augmented hepatitis B vaccine protocol for rapid seroprotection in voluntary kidney donors.

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Department of Nephrology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.



Conventional hepatitis B vaccine protocols do not provide rapid seroprotection against hepatitis B. This randomized controlled trial was carried out to investigate the efficacy of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) augmented double-dose vaccine protocol in voluntary kidney donors prior to donor nephrectomy.


A total of 54 kidney donors, who had no history of hepatitis B infection, hepatitis B vaccination and tested negative for anti-HBs and anti-HBc antibodies were randomly allocated to the control or test groups. GM-CSF (300 microg) was administered subcutaneously on day 0, followed by 40 microg of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine intramuscularly on the same deltoid on day 1. The control group received only 40 microg of intramuscular hepatitis B vaccine. Anti-HBs titres were measured at the end of 4 wk.


Of the 54 donors studied, there was a significant (P<0.003) seroconversion in the GM-CSF group (82%) compared to the control group (37%), after a single immunization with double-dose recombinant hepatitis B vaccine by 4 wk. Minor side effects such as fever in four patients and myalgia in three were noticed.


GM-CSF augmented double-dose hepatitis B vaccine could be used in unvaccinated patients when a rapid response is desired.

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