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Brain Res. 2004 May 22;1008(2):273-7.

Neurons in and near insular cortex are responsive to muscular contraction and have sympathetic and/or cardiac-related discharge.

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  • 1Department of Kinesiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.


Insular cortex (IC) is recognized as a potential site for "central command" of cardiorespiratory responses during exercise. Muscular contraction (MC) decreased the discharge rate of most IC neurons. Activity of most contraction sensitive neurons was either not altered by elevating blood pressure or showed a response converse to that of MC. IC may thus have a role in central command but the area is clearly modulated by MC.

Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

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