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Psychol Methods. 2004 Jun;9(2):164-82.

Beyond the F test: Effect size confidence intervals and tests of close fit in the analysis of variance and contrast analysis.

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  • 1Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.


This article presents confidence interval methods for improving on the standard F tests in the balanced, completely between-subjects, fixed-effects analysis of variance. Exact confidence intervals for omnibus effect size measures, such as or and the root-mean-square standardized effect, provide all the information in the traditional hypothesis test and more. They allow one to test simultaneously whether overall effects are (a) zero (the traditional test), (b) trivial (do not exceed some small value), or (c) nontrivial (definitely exceed some minimal level). For situations in which single-degree-of-freedom contrasts are of primary interest, exact confidence interval methods for contrast effect size measures such as the contrast correlation are also provided.

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