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Addict Behav. 2004 Jun;29(4):801-5.

Depression and smoking: from the Transtheoretical Model of change perspective.

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Department of Psychiatry, University of California-San Francisco, 401 Parnassus Avenue (0984-TRC), San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


This study investigated the associations among history of depression, current depressive symptoms, and constructs of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of change: stages of change, decisional balance, temptation, and processes of change for smoking cessation. Participants were 239 current smokers (70.7% male, 49.8% African-American, mean cigarettes per day=19.8, 42.3% were in precontemplation). Results showed that participants with a history of depression reported higher current depressive symptoms. No significant relationship was observed between stages and history or current level of depressive symptoms. Current depressive symptoms, rather than depression history, was related to other TTM constructs: pros of smoking, temptation to smoke under habitual and negative affect situations, and the self-reevaluation process of change.

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