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J Vis. 2004 Apr 22;4(4):288-98.

Myopic versus hyperopic eyes: axial length, corneal shape and optical aberrations.

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Instituto de Optica Daza de Valdés, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.


This study investigated differences in geometrical properties and optical aberrations between a group of hyperopes and myopes (age-matched 30.3+/-5.2 and 30.5+/-3.8 years old, respectively, and with similar absolute refractive error 3.0+/-2.0 and -3.3+/-2.0, respectively). Axial length (AL) was measured by means of optical biometry, and corneal apical radius of curvature (CR) and asphericity (Q) were measured by fitting corneal topography data to biconic surfaces. Corneal aberrations were estimated from corneal topography by means of virtual ray tracing, and total aberrations were measured using a laser ray tracing technique. Internal aberrations were estimated by subtracting corneal from total aberrations. AL was significantly higher in myopes than in hyperopes and AL/CR was highly correlated with spherical equivalent. Hyperopic eyes tended to have higher (less negative) Q and higher total and corneal spherical aberration than myopic eyes. RMS for third-order aberrations was also significantly higher for the hyperopic eyes. Internal aberrations were not significantly different between the myopic and hyperopic groups, although internal spherical aberration showed a significant age-related shift toward less negative values in the hyperopic group. For these age and refraction ranges, our cross-sectional results do not support evidence of relationships between emmetropization and ocular aberrations. Our results may be indicative of presbyopic changes occurring earlier in hyperopes than in myopes.

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