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Angle Orthod. 2004 Apr;74(2):202-11.

Evaluation of the frictional resistance of conventional and self-ligating bracket designs using standardized archwires and dental typodonts.

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1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Abstract

The frictional behavior of four conventional and four self-ligating brackets were simulated using a mechanical testing machine. Analyses of the two-bracket types were completed by drawing samples of three standardized archwires through quadrants of typodont models in the dry/wet states. Pretreatment typodonts of an oral cavity featured progressively malocclused quadrants. As nominal dimensions of the archwires were increased, the drawing forces of all brackets increased at different rates. When coupled with a small wire, the self-ligating brackets performed better than the conventional brackets. For the 0.014-inch wires in the upper right quadrant, the maximum drawing forces averaged 125 and 810 cN for self-ligating and conventional brackets, respectively. When coupled with larger wires, various designs interchangeably displayed superior performance. For the 0.019- x 0.025-inch wires in the upper left quadrant, the maximum drawing forces averaged 1635 and 2080 cN for self-ligating and conventional brackets, respectively. As the malocclusion increased, the drawing forces increased. For example, in the least malocclused quadrant and with the smallest wire, maximum drawing forces for self-ligating and conventional brackets averaged 80 and 810 cN, respectively, whereas in the most malocclused quadrant tested with the same wire size, maximum drawing forces for self-ligating and conventional brackets averaged 870 and 1345 cN, respectively. For maximum values between the dry and wet states, significant differences between ambient states existed only for the In-Ovation brackets in the lower left quadrant. These test outcomes illustrated how bracket design, wire size, malocclusion, and ambient state influenced drawing forces.

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