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Hypertens Res. 2004 Apr;27(4):227-33.

Hyperuricemia and cardiovascular risk factor clustering in a screened cohort in Okinawa, Japan.

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Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology and Neurology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.


The relation between serum uric acid level and cardiovascular risk factors is complex and has been investigated mainly in men. We examined the correlation between serum uric acid level and obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus (DM) in both men and women of a screened cohort in Okinawa, Japan. A total of 9,914 individuals (6,163 men and 3,751 women ranging in age from 18 to 89 years) who were screened at Okinawa General Health Maintenance Association were subjects in this study. Hyperuricemia was defined as a serum uric acid level > or = 7.0 mg/dl in men and > or = 6.0 mg/dl in women. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the presence of hyperuricemia in men were 1.75 (1.56-1.97) for obesity, 1.42 (1.25-1.62) for hypertension, 1.16 (1.02-1.30) for hypercholesterolemia, 1.80 (1.60-2.03) for hypertriglyceridemia, 1.19 (1.02-1.40) for hypo-high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterolemia, and 0.61 (0.49-0.75) for DM; in women, they were 2.02 (1.62-2.53) for obesity, 1.64 (1.29-2.10) for hypertension, 1.31 (1.04-1.65) for hypercholesterolemia, 1.95 (1.51-2.51) for hypertriglyceridemia, 1.53 (0.96-2.44) for hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, and 1.20 (0.76-1.90) for DM. Hyperuricemic subjects had higher rates of coexistence of two or more of these cardiovascular risk factors than non-hyperuricemic subjects (63.8% vs. 43.2% in men; 58.9% vs. 27.6% in women). The present study revealed that hyperuricemia is positively associated with obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in both men and women, and that hyperuricemic subjects tend to have a clustering of these cardiovascular risk factors.

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