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J Urol. 2004 Jun;171(6 Pt 1):2281-4.

Association of tobacco use with hormone refractory disease and survival of patients with prostate cancer.

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Department of Urology, Case Western University School of Medicine, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.



We identified time to the development of hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) and survival in men with advanced prostate cancer and examined any association with cigarette smoking history.


The study design was retrospective. A complete tobacco history was obtained in 222 patients with advanced prostate cancer. HRPC was diagnosed in 133 of these 222 patients and death occurred in 77. Standard statistical methods and software were used to analyze these data.


Median time to HRPC was 11, 23 and 35 months in patients with a current, former or never smoked tobacco history (p = 0.00001). Median overall survival time on androgen ablative therapy was 38, 47 and 60 months in patients with a current, former or never smoked tobacco history, respectively (p = 0.00001).


Tobacco use independently correlates with time to HRPC and survival in a dose dependent manner in patients with advanced prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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