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Urol Clin North Am. 2004 May;31(2):301-11.

Lifestyle recommendations to prevent prostate cancer, part II: time to redirect our attention?

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  • 1Department of Urology, University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0330, USA.


This article provides a foundation for men who want to incorporate lifestyle changes to reduce their risk for prostate cancer and, more importantly, impact all-cause mortality. Table 1 summarizes some of these lifestyle changes that can be recommended to patients in most settings. Minimal time is required to suggest these changes, and a copy of Table 1 can be provided as a reminder to patients. Although these recommendations may seem simple, past studies of men have demonstrated that few (less than 5%) adhere to numerous healthy behaviors simultaneously. It seems to be more common to follow one healthy change in excess than to make multiple changes in moderation. This may be the result of past studies focusing on one lifestyle change to affect disease risk; poor compliance; lack of attention, time, or understanding to this detail; or lack of motivation on the part of the health professional and the patient. Clinical trials of combined moderate lifestyle changes, however, demonstrate that the total effort to make healthy lifestyle changes is more important than one or two behavioral changes in affecting cardiovascular markers, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Recommending a pill is an easy answer, but few supplements for prostate-cancer prevention or total mortality reduction can be recommended, and long-term compliance is a concern with any agent. Additionally, the potential for supplements to increase the risk for prostate cancer or interfere with conventional treatment continues to be a concern, and no dietary supplement has come close to matching the reduction in all-cause mortality observed in clinical trials of lifestyle changes. The time seems ripe to redirect our attention regarding lifestyle changes and prostate cancer risk. What is heart-healthy is prostate-healthy, which makes it more likely that any man concerned about the risk for prostate cancer will make healthy lifestyle changes.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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