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Int J Psychoanal. 1992 Summer;73 ( Pt 2):255-65.

Psychic change: the analytic relationship(s) and agents of change.


Psychic change, the agents of change, and the theory of technique have gradually changed pari passu with other changes in the field. Rather idealized concepts of structural change have been supplanted by current emphasis on experience-near clinical and functional change. There are varied processes and agents of change, but interpretation and insight are crucial to psychoanalysis. Attention to noninterpretive agents of change includes contemporary theoretical and technical interest in the analytic relationship(s). As analyses become much longer, the real relationship expands, and may impede the analysis of inter-weaving transference and countertransference ramifications. The ambiguous concept of 'new object' primarily refers to the analyst's analytic attitude, role, and analysing functions. Analysis progresses with internalization of the analytic process, but internalization of the analytic relationship and experience may also contribute to psychic change. The analyst should have a stable analytic attitude and identity, and be able to change with new knowledge and experience.

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