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Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2004 Apr;14(2):335-52.

Extended/advanced monitoring techniques in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

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Department of Gastroenterology, Valduce Hospital, Via Dante 11, Como 22100, Italy.


The practice of sedation and analgesia is under increasing scrutiny by numerous regulatory agencies, with the aim of making these procedures safer and reducing the incidence of cardiopulmonary complications during GI endoscopy. As we move toward more evidence-based medicine, new technologies will have to be assessed in a manner that demonstrates their efficacy and utility in clinical practice. Although there have been no controlled studies examining whether more intensive monitoring during endoscopy improves outcomes, extended monitoring with capnography seems to offer an advantage over conventional monitoring in that, by providing a real-time indication of any change in adequate ventilation before oxygen desaturation occurs, it can detect early phases of respiratory depression, which can allow a more precise and safer titration of medications. There is a close agreement among experts that capnography may reduce the risk of adverse outcomes during deep sedation; therefore, its use should be required for patients undergoing advanced endoscopic procedures with the potential for deep sedation. Extended monitoring with capnography should also be endorsed whenever propofol is considered as an alternative to standard sedation with a benzodiazepine or narcotic. Our understanding of the clinical application of techniques for monitoring of depth of sedation is in its infancy, and its full contribution to the practice of endoscopy has yet to be determined. Their potential role in improving sedation practice during endoscopy needs to be confirmed by controlled trials. If we consider the lack of proven efficacy of these emerging monitoring techniques in reducing the adverse outcomes associated with sedation and analgesia, the importance of appropriate monitoring cannot be overemphasized. However, it is vital for the endoscopist to be thoroughly familiar with the type of sedation chosen, to be able to recognize the various levels of sedation, and, above all, to rescue patients should they unintentionally progress to a deeper level of sedation than intended.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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