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Micron. 2004;35(6):399-409.

Radiation damage in the TEM and SEM.

Author information

1
Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Faculty of Science, 412 Avadh Bhatia Phy, Edmonton T6G 2J1, Canada. regerton@ualberta.ca

Abstract

We review the various ways in which an electron beam can adversely affect an organic or inorganic sample during examination in an electron microscope. The effects considered are: heating, electrostatic charging, ionization damage (radiolysis), displacement damage, sputtering and hydrocarbon contamination. In each case, strategies to minimise the damage are identified. In the light of recent experimental evidence, we re-examine two common assumptions: that the amount of radiation damage is proportional to the electron dose and is independent of beam diameter; and that the extent of the damage is proportional to the amount of energy deposited in the specimen.

PMID:
15120123
DOI:
10.1016/j.micron.2004.02.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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