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Micron. 2004;35(6):399-409.

Radiation damage in the TEM and SEM.

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Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Faculty of Science, 412 Avadh Bhatia Phy, Edmonton T6G 2J1, Canada.


We review the various ways in which an electron beam can adversely affect an organic or inorganic sample during examination in an electron microscope. The effects considered are: heating, electrostatic charging, ionization damage (radiolysis), displacement damage, sputtering and hydrocarbon contamination. In each case, strategies to minimise the damage are identified. In the light of recent experimental evidence, we re-examine two common assumptions: that the amount of radiation damage is proportional to the electron dose and is independent of beam diameter; and that the extent of the damage is proportional to the amount of energy deposited in the specimen.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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