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J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 25;279(26):27199-210. Epub 2004 Apr 26.

Transcriptional mechanisms regulating alveolar epithelial cell-specific CCL5 secretion in pulmonary tuberculosis.

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Department of Infectious Diseases, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom.


CCL5 (or RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted)) recruits T lymphocytes and monocytes. The source and regulation of CCL5 in pulmonary tuberculosis are unclear. Infection of the human alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) by Mycobacterium tuberculosis caused no CCL5 secretion and little monocyte secretion. Conditioned medium from tuberculosis-infected human monocytes (CoMTB) stimulated significant CCL5 secretion from A549 cells and from primary alveolar, but not upper airway, epithelial cells. Differential responsiveness of small airway and normal human bronchial epithelial cells to CoMTB but not to conditioned medium from unstimulated human monocytes was specific to CCL5 and not to CXCL8. CoMTB induced CCL5 mRNA accumulation in A549 cells and induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) subunits p50, p65, and c-rel at 1 h; nuclear binding of activator protein (AP)-1 (c-Fos, FosB, and c-Jun) at 4-8 h; and binding of NF-interleukin (IL)-6 at 24 h. CCL5 promoter-reporter analysis using deletion and site-specific mutagenesis constructs demonstrated a key role for AP-1, NF-IL-6, and NFkappaB in driving CoMTB-induced promoter activity. The IL-1 receptor antagonist inhibited A549 and small airway epithelial cell CCL5 secretion, gene expression, and promoter activity. CoMTB contained IL-1beta, and recombinant IL-1beta reproduced CoMTB effects. Monocyte alveolar, but not upper airway, epithelial cell networks in pulmonary tuberculosis cause AP-1-, NF-IL-6-, and NFkappaB-dependent CCL5 secretion. IL-1beta is the critical regulator of tuberculosis-stimulated CCL5 secretion in the lung.

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