Send to

Choose Destination
Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2004 Apr 15;58:209-15.

[Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)--the opioid, antiopioid or neuromodulator?].

[Article in Polish]

Author information

Katedra i Zakład Farmakodynamiki, Akademii Medycznej im. prof. F. Skubiszewskiego w Lublinie.


Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a neuropeptide discovered in the middle of the 1990. It possesses an amino acid sequence very similar to those of endogenous opioid peptides (particularly dynorphin A). However, N/OFQ lacks the N-terminal tyrosine necessary for activation of mu-, kappa- and delta- opioid receptors and therefore does not bind to opioid receptors but to its own nociceptin receptor (NOP). Opioid peptides also do not bind to the NOP receptor. In spite of structural similarities, the pharmacological profile of N/OFQ is different from and, in many cases, opposite to that of the opioids. Intracerebroventricular injection of N/OFQ induces hyperalgesia and decreases the analgesic actions of opioids, but induces analgesia when given intrathecally. N/OFQ blocks the rewarding effects of morphine, ethanol, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine, but given alone it does not have rewarding effect. N/OFQ is metabolized to shorter fragments, such as N/OFQ(1-13), N/OFQ(1-11), N/OFQ(1-7) and N/OFQ(1-6). These fragments show biological activity. The effects of N/OFQ include regulation of the release of numerous neurotransmitters and hormones, as NOP receptors are located presynaptically in different brain structures. The aim of this review was to present current opinion on the role of N/OFQ in nociception, reward and drug dependence.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for IndexCopernicus
Loading ...
Support Center