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Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;79(5):717-26.

Assessment of dietary vitamin D requirements during pregnancy and lactation.

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Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, 114 Doughty Street, PO Box 205770, Charleston, SC 29403, USA.


Concerns about vitamin D have resurfaced in medical and scientific literature because the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the United States, particularly among darkly pigmented persons, has increased. The primary goals of this review were to discuss past and current literature and to reassess the dietary reference intake for vitamin D in adults, with particular focus on women during pregnancy and lactation. The appropriate dose of vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation is unknown, although it appears to be greater than the current dietary reference intake of 200-400 IU/d (5-10 microg/d). Doses of < or =10 000 IU vitamin D/d (250 microg/d) for up to 5 mo do not elevate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D to concentrations > 90 ng/mL, whereas doses < 1000 IU/d appear, in many cases, to be inadequate for maintaining normal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of between 15 and 80 ng/mL. Vitamin D plays no etiologic role in cardiac valvular disease, such as that observed in Williams syndrome, and, as such, animal models involving vitamin D intoxication that show an effect on cardiac disease are flawed and offer no insight into normal human physiology. Higher doses of vitamin D are necessary for a large segment of Americans to achieve concentrations equivalent to those in persons who live and work in sun-rich environments. Further studies are necessary to determine optimal vitamin D intakes for pregnant and lactating women as a function of latitude and race.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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