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Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2004 Apr-Jun;15(2-3):87-95.

T1/ST2--an IL-1 receptor-like modulator of immune responses.

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Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.


Th2-associated factors such as IL-4 are involved in both the development of Th2 responses (via modulating Th2 cell differentiation) and in the effector phase of Th2 responses (via modulating macrophage activation). The IL-1 receptor-like protein ST2 (T1, Fit-1, or DER4) is expressed as a membrane-bound (ST2L) or secreted form (sST2), and has been clearly implicated as a regulator of both the development and effector phases of Th2-type responses. Here we analyze the mechanisms and therapeutic implications of the unique ability of ST2 to promote development and function of type 2 helper T cells through a positive feedback loop, as well as to act as a negative feedback modulator of macrophage pro-inflammatory function.

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