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J Infect Dis. 2004 May 1;189 Suppl 1:S160-4.

Genetic analysis of measles viruses isolated in the united states between 1989 and 2001: absence of an endemic genotype since 1994.

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  • 1Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.


This report describes measles virus surveillance in the United States for 1989-2001. During the resurgence of measles in the United States between 1989 and 1992, only viruses of genotype D3 were isolated. In contrast, virological surveillance conducted after the resurgence period showed that at least 12 different genotypes were associated with the greatly reduced number of measles cases. Eight different genotypes were identified for 27 chains of transmission in which the source of infection was unknown. The diversity of measles virus genotypes observed in the United States between 1994 and 2001 reflected multiple imported sources of virus and indicated that no genotype of measles is endemic in the United States. Therefore, the data obtained from virological surveillance are consistent with the conclusions made by disease surveillance and epidemiological investigations that measles is no longer an endemic disease in the United States.

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