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J Am Chem Soc. 2004 Apr 28;126(16):5064-5.

Synthesis of monofunctionalized gold nanoparticles by fmoc solid-phase reactions.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139 USA.


In this communication, solid-phase reactions for the synthesis of Lys-monofunctionalized gold nanoparticles are described. A controlled and selective fabrication of linear nanoparticle arrays can be achieved through peptide linkage systems, and therefore it is essential to prepare Fmoc amino acid nanoparticle building blocks susceptible to Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. Gold nanoparticles containing carboxylic acids (2) in the organic shell were covalently ligated to Lys on solid supports through amide bond coupling reactions. We employed Fmoc-Lys-substituted polymer resins such as Fmoc-Lys-Wang or Fmoc-Lys-HMPA-PEGA. The low density of Lys on the matrix enabled 2 nm-sized gold nanoparticles to react with Lys in a 1:1 ratio. Subsequent cleavage reactions using 60% TFA reagent resulted in Lys transfer from the solid matrix to gold nanoparticles, and the Fmoc-Lys-monofunctionalized gold nanoparticles (5) were obtained with 3-15% yield. Synthesis using HMPA-PEGA resin increased productivity due to the superior swelling properties of PEGA resin in DMF. Monofunctionalization of nanoparticles was microscopically characterized using TEM for the ethylenediamine-bridged nanoparticle dimers (6). By counting the number of 6, we found that at least 60% of cleaved nanoparticles were monofunctionalized by Lys. This method is highly selective and efficient for the preparation of monofunctionalized nanoparticles.

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