Send to

Choose Destination
Exp Cell Res. 2004 May 1;295(2):469-87.

Human neuroblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia: induction of genes associated with growth, survival, and aggressive behavior.

Author information

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Molecular Medicine, University Hospital MAS, Lund University, S-205 02 Malmö, Sweden.


We have recently found that cells derived from human neuroblastoma, a sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tumor, dedifferentiate and acquire a neural crest-like phenotype when exposed to hypoxia. In the present study, global analysis of gene expression and quantitative PCR of relevant genes showed that hypoxia provokes a general adaptive response in neuroblastoma cells and confirm loss of the neuronal phenotype and gain of stem-cell characteristics. Of the approximately 17,000 genes and ESTs analyzed, 199 were consistently upregulated and 36 were downregulated more than 2-fold by hypoxia. As anticipated, several genes involved in glucose and iron metabolism and neovascularization were upregulated, the latter group we here show to include the gene encoding chromogranin C and its cleavage product, secretoneurin, a vascular smooth muscle cell mitogen. We also observed upregulation of genes implicated in cell survival and growth, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), neuropilin 1, adrenomedullin, and IGF-2. Several metallothioneins, which are linked to tumor drug resistance, were upregulated, whereas the expression of MDR1 decreased. In hypoxic neuroblastoma cells, proneuronal lineage specifying transcription factors, and their dimerization partner E2-2, were downregulated, whereas their inhibitors Id2 and HES-1 were induced, providing a molecular mechanism for the hypoxia-provoked dedifferentiation of neuroblastoma cells.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center