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Environ Pollut. 1996;93(3):257-60.

Flocculation of dissolved Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn during estuarine mixing of river water with the Caspian Sea.

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Faculty of Environment, Tehran University, PO Box 14155-6135, Tehran, Iran.


This is the first study of the flocculation of dissolved Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn during mixing of river water with the largest lake in the world (the Caspian Sea). Flocculation of dissolved metals was investigated on a series of mixtures with salinities ranging from 3.2 to 7.4 per thousand. The flocculation rates {Cu (74%) > Pb (61%) > Mn (58%) > Zn (34%)} are indicative of the non-conservative behavior of metals during estuarine mixing. Statistical analysis indicates that the flocculation of Pb and Mn is governed by salinity. The flocculation rates reveal that the overall metal pollution loads may decline by about 57% during estuarine mixing.

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