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Environ Pollut. 1996;94(1):53-60.

Effects of enhanced O3 and CO2 enrichment on plant characteristics in wheat and corn.

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1
National Institute for Space Research, Remote Sensing Division, C. P. 515, 12201 S. J., Campos, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

The effects of CO(2) enrichment and O(3) induced stress on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were studied in field experiments using open-top chambers to simulate the atmospheric concentrations of these two gases that are predicted to occur during the coming century. The experiments were conducted at Beltsville, MD, during 1991 (wheat and corn) and 1992 (wheat). Crops were grown under charcoal filtered (CF) air or ambient air + 40 nl liter(-1) O(3) (7 h per day, 5 days per week) having ambient CO(2) concentration (350 microl liter(-1) CO(2)) or + 150 microl liter(-1) CO(2) (12 h per day.). Averaged over O(3) treatments, the CO(2)-enriched environment had a positive effect on wheat grain yield (26% in 1991 and 15% in 1992) and dry biomass (15% in 1991 and 9% in 1992). Averaged over CO(2) treatments, high O(3) exposure had a negative impact on wheat grain yield (-15% in 1991 and -11% in 1992) and dry biomass (-11% in 1991 and -9% in 1992). Averaged over CO(2) treatments, high O(3) exposure decreased corn grain yield by 9%. No significant interactive effects were observed for either crop. The results indicated that CO(2) enrichment had a beneficial effect in wheat (C(3) crop) but not in corn (C(4) crop). It is likely that the O(3)-induced stress will be diminished under increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations; however, maximal benefits in crop production in wheat in response to CO(2) enrichment will not be materialized under concomitant increases in tropospheric O(3) concentration.

PMID:
15093517
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