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Environ Pollut. 1999 Aug;106(2):237-48.

Interactive effects of ozone and elevated carbon dioxide on the growth and physiology of black cherry, green ash, and yellow-poplar seedlings.

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Biology Department, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023, USA.


Potted seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) (BC), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) (GA), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) (YP) were exposed to one of the four treatments: (1) charcoal-filtered air (CF) at ambient CO(2) (control); (2) twice ambient O(3) (2 x O(3)); (3) twice ambient CO(2) (650 microl l(-1)) plus CF air (2 x CO(2)); or (4) twice ambient CO(2) (650 microl l(-1)) plus twice ambient O(3) (2 x CO(2) + 2 x O(3)). The treatments were duplicated in eight continuously stirred tank reactors for 10 weeks. Gas exchange was measured during the last 3 weeks of treatment and all seedlings were destructively harvested after 10 weeks. Significant interactive effects of O(3) and CO(2) on the gas exchange of all three species were limited. The effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3), singly and combined, on light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(max)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were inconsistent across species. In all three species, elevated O(3) had no effect on g(s). Elevated CO(2) significantly increased A(max) in GA and YP foliage, and decreased g(s) in YP foliage. Maximum carbon exchange rates and quantum efficiencies derived from light-response curves increased, while compensation irradiance and dark respiration decreased in all three species when exposed to 2 x CO(2). Elevated O(3) affected few of these parameters but any change that was observed was opposite to that from exposure to 2 x CO(2)-air. Interactive effects of CO(2) and O(3) on light-response parameters were limited. Carboxylation efficiencies, derived from CO(2)-response curves (A/C(i) curves) decreased only in YP foliage exposed to 2 x CO(2)-air. In general, growth was significantly stimulated by 2 x CO(2) in all three species; though there were few significant growth responses following exposure to 2 x O(3) or the combination of 2 x CO(2) plus 2 x O(3). Results indicate that responses to interacting stressors such as O(3) and CO(2) are species specific.

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