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Environ Pollut. 2000 Apr;108(1):103-12.

Bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants in soils and sediments--a perspective on mechanisms, consequences and assessment.

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Department of Environmental Science, Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK.


It has been observed that as soil-pollutant contact time increases, pollutant bioavailability and extractability decreases. This phenomenon has been termed 'ageing'. Decreased chemical extractability with increased soil-chemical contact time is evident where both 'harsh' techniques, e.g. dichloromethane Soxhlet extraction, and 'non-exhaustive' techniques, e.g. butanol shake extraction, have been used. It has also been observed that the amount of chemical extracted by these techniques varies considerably over time. Similarly, decreases in bioavailability with increased soil-pollutant contact time have been described in bacterial, earthworm and other organism studies. From these investigations, it has been shown that the fraction of pollutant determined to be bioavailable can vary between organisms. Thus, there is an immediate definition problem, what is bioavailability? Additionally, if bioavailability is to be assessed by a chemical means, which organisms should (or can) be mimicked by the extraction procedure? This review provides a background to the processes inherent to ageing, a discussion of its consequences on bioavailability and ends with some reflections on the appropriateness of chemical extraction techniques to mimic bioavailability.


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