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Environ Pollut. 2000 Sep;109(3):403-13.

Modelling stomatal ozone flux across Europe.

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  • 1Biology Department, Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, UK.


A model has been developed to estimate stomatal ozone flux across Europe for a number of important species. An initial application of this model is illustrated for two species, wheat and beech. The model calculates ozone flux using European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) model ozone concentrations in combination with estimates of the atmospheric, boundary layer and stomatal resistances to ozone transfer. The model simulates the effect of phenology, irradiance, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture deficit on stomatal conductance. These species-specific microclimatic parameters are derived from meteorological data provided by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI), together with detailed land-use and soil type maps assembled at the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). Modelled fluxes are presented as mean monthly flux maps and compared with maps describing equivalent values of AOT40 (accumulated exposure over threshold of 40 ppb or nl l(-1)), highlighting the spatial differences between these two indices. In many cases high ozone fluxes were modelled in association with only moderate AOT40 values. The factors most important in limiting ozone uptake under the model assumptions were vapour pressure deficit (VPD), soil moisture deficit (for Mediterranean regions in particular) and phenology. The limiting effect of VPD on ozone uptake was especially apparent, since high VPDs resulting in stomatal closure tended to co-occur with high ozone concentrations. Although further work is needed to link the ozone uptake and deposition model components, and to validate the model with field measurements, the present results give a clear indication of the possible implications of adopting a flux-based approach for future policy evaluation.


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