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Phys Rev Lett. 2004 Mar 26;92(12):127401. Epub 2004 Mar 22.

Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals.

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Department of Physics and Electronic Materials Research Institute, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


We demonstrate the negative refraction of microwaves in a metallic photonic crystal prism. The spectral response of the photonic crystal prism, which manifests both positive and negative refraction, is in complete agreement with band-structure calculations and numerical simulations. The validity of Snell's law with a negative refractive index is confirmed experimentally and theoretically. The negative refraction observed corresponds to left-handed electromagnetism that arises due to the dispersion characteristics of waves in a periodic medium. This mechanism for negative refraction is different from that in metamaterials.

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