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Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2004 Mar;18(1):53-63.

The death of Alexander the Great: malaria or typhoid fever?

Abstract

Alexander the Great had a profound effect on world history. His conquests covered the entire known world at the time, and he was responsible for the spread of Greek culture throughout the ancient world. In Babylon in 323 BC, Alexander died when he was nearly 33 years old. Possible explanations for his death have included alcoholic liver disease and strychnine poisoning, but little data support either condition as the cause of his death. Alexander most likely died from malaria or typhoid fever, which were rampant in ancient Babylon. The description of his final illness from the royal diaries is consistent with typhoid fever or malaria but is most characteristic of typhoid fever.

PMID:
15081504
DOI:
10.1016/S0891-5520(03)00090-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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