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Injury. 2004 May;35(5):443-61.

Calcaneus fractures: facts, controversies and recent developments.

Author information

1
Department of Trauma & Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany. strammelt@hotmail.com

Abstract

The management of calcaneus fractures and their associated soft tissue injuries are challenging tasks for the surgeon. Open reduction and stable internal fixation with a lateral plate and without joint transfixation has been established as a standard therapy for displaced intra-articular fractures with good to excellent results in two-thirds to three-quarters of cases in larger clinical series. Bone grafting appears not useful in the vast majority of cases. Anatomical reduction of joint congruity and the overall shape of the calcaneus are important prognostic factors. The quality of joint reduction should be reliably proven intra-operatively either with Brodén views, high-resolution fluoroscopy or open subtalar arthroscopy. Treatment results are adversely affected by open fractures, delayed reduction after more than 14 days and individual risk factors such as high body mass index and smoking. The extended lateral approach respects the neurovascular supply to the heel and allows a good exposure of the fractured lateral wall, and the subtalar and calcaneocuboid joints in most fractures. In selected fracture patterns percutaneous screw fixation, possibly with arthroscopic control, is a good alternative. Open fractures, compartment syndrome and fractures with severe soft tissue compromise are treated as emergency cases. Early, stable soft tissue coverage appears promising in treating complex open fractures. The benefits of newly developed plate designs and subtalar arthrolysis at the time of hardware removal remains to be proven in further studies. Calcaneal malunions after conservative therapy of displaced fractures are disabling conditions that can be treated successfully with a staged protocol according to the type of deformity. Treatment options include lateral wall decompression, subtalar in situ, or corrective, arthrodesis and calcaneal osteotomy along the former fracture line.

PMID:
15081321
DOI:
10.1016/j.injury.2003.10.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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