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Sports Biomech. 2004 Jan;3(1):145-58.

Biomechanical differences in elite beach-volleyball players in vertical squat jump on rigid and sand surface.

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Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.


The purpose of this investigation was to detect whether differences exist concerning the dynamic and kinematic parameters of vertical squat jump (SJ) on rigid (RS) and sand (SS) surface. Fifteen elite male beach volleyball players (age: 25.6 +/- 6.2 years; height: 188.0 +/- 3.5 cm; body mass: 83.2 +/- 6.0 kg; mean +/- SD, respectively) performed SJ. Force platform and kinematic analyses were used with paired sample T-tests to evaluate the differences. Vertical jump height was significantly smaller (p < .001) on SS than RS. Maximal force and maximal power were significantly higher on RS than SS (p < .05 and p < .01 respectively). Impulse time was larger in SS but with no significant difference (p = .286). Kinematic analysis revealed significant differences between the values of ankle joint during starting posture (p < .01) and of hip joint at the moment of take-off (p < .05). Ankle joint range of motion and angular velocity was larger in SS (p < .05). In conclusion, SJ height on SS was smaller than on RS because of the compliance and the instability of the sand. This resulted in a reduction in maximum force and take-off velocity. Furthermore, the compliance of SS made it hard for the ankle to push along the vertical axis of the movement of the body and as a result it slipped behind in an attempt to maximize propulsion. As a result, the body tries to balance and equalise this movement and move the hip to larger extension.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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