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J Urol. 2004 May;171(5):1788-92.

The influence of various maintenance immunosuppressive drugs on lymphocele formation and treatment after kidney transplantation.

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Section of Renal Transplantation, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.



We compared the incidence of lymphocele formation and treatment in kidney transplant recipients given 3 immunosuppressive drug regimens.


Consecutive series of adult kidney only recipients, including group 1-152 who received sirolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)/prednisone (P), group 2-168 who received cyclosporine/MMF/P and group 3-193 who received cyclosporine/azathioprine/P, were analyzed for post-transplantation lymphocele formation. All available records and imaging studies were reviewed, such as ultrasound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging etc, for peritransplant fluid collections greater than 2.5 cm. Demographic characteristics and the risk factors for lymphocele were compared in these 513 recipients using univariate and multivariate analysis.


The overall incidence of lymphocele formation was 174 of 513 cases (33.9%) and the incidence of treated lymphoceles was 81 of 513 (15.7%). In groups 1 to 3 the incidence was 45.5%, 33.9% and 24.7%, respectively. These differences were significantly higher in group 1 vs groups 2 or 3 (p = 0.014) but they were not significantly different between groups 2 and 3. Similarly the incidence of treated lymphoceles was 23%, 12.5% and 12.9%, respectively. Findings were again statistically higher in group 1 vs groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.003) but not statistically significant between groups 2 and 3. A greater number of group 1 patients required surgical interventions compared with those in groups 2 and 3 (13.8% vs 4.7% and 4.8%, respectively, p = 0.019). In addition, acute rejection (p = 0.001) and body mass index greater than 32 (p = 0.02) were significant risk factors on multivariate analysis.


The combination of sirolimus/MMF/P, obesity with a body mass index of greater than 30 kg/m and acute rejection are independent risk factors for lymphocele formation and treatment after kidney transplantation. Patients should be counseled and consideration should be given to prophylactic measures in this higher risk renal transplant population.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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