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Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2004 Jan-Mar;5(1):40-3.

Development of a data-based short food frequency questionnaire for assessing nutrient intake by middle-aged Japanese.

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Department of Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601 Japan.



Development of a data-based short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for evaluating intake of nutrients by middle-aged Japanese.


Of 102 foods listed in the formerly developed semi-quantitative FFQ, foods having similar nutrient contents were combined into 72 foods/food groups by research dietitians. Nutrient contents were computed by multiplying the weight of foods consumed and its nutrient contents. Next, a cumulative multiple regression coefficient up to 0.85 was applied, and 47 foods/food groups were chosen for a brief FFQ for assessing intake of 21 nutrients including energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers.


The 47 foods/food groups comprised rice, bread and noodles (3), margarine/butter (2), eggs (1), milk and dairy products (2), soybean and soybean products (3), miso-soup (1), meat including beef, pork and chicken (4), fish (3), other fish, shellfish and fish products (4), green-yellow vegetables (5), other vegetables and mushrooms (3), edible roots (4), seaweeds (1), mayonnaise (1), fried dishes (2), seeds (1), fruit (2), beverages, including alcohol (3), and confectioneries (2).


The evidence-based short FFQ efficiently covered the intake of 21 nutrients, and may be competent to rank the middle-aged general public Japanese according to intake of nutrients.

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