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Psychol Rev. 2004 Apr;111(2):524-42.

Remember-know: a matter of confidence.

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School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WAU, Australia.


This article critically examines the view that the signal detection theory (SDT) interpretation of the remember-know (RK) paradigm has been ruled out by the evidence. The author evaluates 5 empirical arguments against a database of 72 studies reporting RK data under 400 different conditions. These arguments concern (a). the functional independence of remember and know rates, (b). the invariance of estimates of sensitivity, (c). the relationship between remember rates and overall hit and false alarm rates, (d). the relationship between RK responses and confidence judgments, and (e). dissociations between remember and overall hit rates. Each of these arguments is shown to be flawed, and despite being open to refutation, the SDT interpretation is consistent with existing data from both the RK and remember-know-guess paradigms and offers a basis for further theoretical development.

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