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Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2004 Apr;61(4):543-7.

Embolization and retrieval of the Amplatzer septal occluder.

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  • 1Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Mattel Children's Hospital at University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.


Embolization and percutaneous retrieval of the Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO) after release have been reported. However, the incidence, the causes of embolization, and the methods for effective retrieval have not been systematically described. In a survey of the ASO company-designated proctors, the incidence of ASO embolization in this group's experience was 0.55% (21 embolizations in 3824 device placements) with a wide range of patient demographics, atrial septal defect (ASD) sizes, and device sizes. Most embolizations occurred because of inadequate rim or undersized devices. Of the 21 embolizations, 15 of the devices were retrieved percutaneously with a gooseneck snare without morbidity or mortality. Six were retrieved at surgery. Of the 21 patients, 12 had ASO closure of their ASDs, and 9 had surgical ASD closure. In vitro, all devices could be retrieved with sheathes 2 Fr sizes larger than their recommended delivery sheath. Any device larger than 26 mm could be retrieved with its delivery sheath. The ability to pull the snared button into a sheath was variable and was assisted by pulling the device from above with a bioptome and by using a rigid notched sheath. Because the incidence of ASO embolization is about 1 in 200 in the most experienced hands, all operators should be prepared with the techniques and equipment required for percutaneous ASO retrieval.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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