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Pediatr Surg Int. 2004 Mar;20(3):170-6. Epub 2004 Apr 3.

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: associated anomalies and antenatal diagnosis. Outcome-related variables at two Detroit hospitals.

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Department of Pediatric Surgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Michigan, 3901 Beaubien Blvd., Detroit, MI 48201, USA.


This retrospective study reviews the medical records of 77 fetuses and babies with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) referred to two hospitals in Detroit from 1986 through 2000. The aims were to examine the effects on outcome of multiple variables, especially the type of CDH, associated anomalies, and ultrasound prognostic parameters. Ultrasound measurements of head (HC), chest (CC), and abdominal circumferences (AC) were obtained from videotapes. ANOVA and chi-square analysis were used to determine statistical significance between groups and proportions. Eighty-nine percent (65/73) of pregnancies resulted in live births, and 54% (35/65) of patients survived past 30 days. Liveborn patients with low APGAR scores were less likely to survive. Forty-three percent (30/70) had major associated anomalies, with cardiac anomalies constituting about 52% (33/64) of the major associated anomalies. Seventy percent of patients with isolated CDH survived versus 36% of patients with both CDH and cardiac anomalies. Sixty-seven percent (8/12) of fetuses antenatally diagnosed before 25 weeks of gestation survived past 30 days of birth. The survival rate of right-sided CDH with liver herniation was 80% (8/10), compared with 29% (4/14) for left-sided CDH with liver herniation (p=0.088). There was a significant linear relationship (r=0.603, p =0.029) between CC/AC and CC/HC among patients with CDH; survivors had higher CC/AC and CC/HC values than nonsurvivors. These results support the utility of CC/AC and CC/HC measurements and the presence of liver herniation as important prognostic factors that can be used in antenatal counseling and in planning clinical trials.

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