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Percept Mot Skills. 2004 Feb;98(1):89-99.

Combined effect of goal setting and self-talk in performance of a soccer-shooting task.

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Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Democritus University of Thrace, 69100 Komotini, Greece.


To examine the combined effect of goal setting and self-talk, 41 professional and semiprofessional soccer players from four different teams were tested on a soccer-shooting task. Teams were assigned to one of four conditions: (a) self-talk, (b) goal setting, (c) goal setting plus self-talk, and (d) do your best control. Subjects performed one baseline measurement and three experimental sessions. Analysis showed that performance, compared to the do your best condition, in the combined condition is immediately enhanced, whereas self-talk and goal-setting effects were significant from Session 3. No significant differences in performance were observed among experimental groups, except in Session 2, during which the combined group scored significantly better than the goal-setting group. It seems that, whereas both goal setting and self-talk are effective in enhancing performance, some advantage may be derived from a combined intervention. Findings are discussed in the perspective of past research efforts on goal setting and self-talk.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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