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Cell Microbiol. 2004 May;6(5):459-71.

Efficient Salmonella entry requires activity cycles of host ADF and cofilin.

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Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.


Entry of Salmonella into mammalian cells is strictly dependent on the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton induced by a panel of Salmonella type III secreted proteins. Although several factors have been identified to be responsible for inducing the actin polymerization and stability, little is known about how the actin depolymerization contributes to Salmonella-induced actin rearrangements. We report here that activity cycles of host actin depolymerizing factor (ADF and cofilin) are modulated by Salmonella during bacterial entry. Efficient Salmonella internalization involves an initial dephosphorylation of ADF and cofilin followed by phosphorylation, suggesting that ADF and cofilin activities are increased briefly. Expression of a kinase dead form of an ADF/cofilin kinase (LIM kinase 1) or a catalytically inactive ADF/cofilin phosphatase (Slingshot), but not constitutively active LIM kinase 1 or wild-type Slingshot, resulted in decreased invasion. These data suggest that ADF/cofilin activities play a key role in the actin polymerization/depolymerization process induced by Salmonella. The activation of ADF/cofilin is brief and has to be reversed to facilitate efficient bacterial entry. Surprisingly, co-expression of constitutive active ADF and cofilin prevented efficient Salmonella entry, whereas expression of either one alone had no effect. We propose that ADF and cofilin actin-dynamizing activities and their activity cycling via phosphorylation are required for efficient Salmonella internalization.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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