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Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;103(4):619-31.

Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus DNA testing for cervical cancer screening in women aged 30 years or more.

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Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115-5924, USA.



To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing as a primary screening test in combination with cervical cytology in women aged 30 years or more.


A state-transition mathematical model was used to simulate the natural history of HPV and cervical cancer in a cohort of U.S. women. Strategies included no screening and screening at different frequencies with conventional cytology, liquid-based cytology with HPV testing used for triage of equivocal results, and HPV DNA testing and cytology in combination after women had reached the age of 30. Outcomes measured included cancer incidence, life expectancy, lifetime costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.


The estimated reduction in lifetime risk of cervical cancer varies from 81% to 93% depending on the screening frequency, type of cytology, and test strategy. Every 3-year screening with liquid-based cytology administered to women at all ages and every 3-year screening using HPV DNA testing and cytology in combination administered to women aged 30 years or more provide equivalent or greater benefits than those provided by annual conventional cytology and have incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of US dollars 95300 and US dollars 228700 per year of life gained, respectively. In comparison, annual screening with HPV DNA testing and cytology in combination provides only a few hours of additional life expectancy and has a cost-effectiveness ratio of more than Us dollars 2000000 per year of life gained.


For women aged 30 years and more, every 2- or 3-year screening strategy that uses either HPV DNA testing in combination with cytology for primary screening or cytology with reflex HPV DNA testing for equivocal results will provide a greater reduction in cancer and be less costly than annual conventional cytology.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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