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Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2004 Apr 1;126B(1):116-21.

Genetic, developmental, and physical factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients with velocardiofacial syndrome.

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Behavioral Genetics Clinic, Feinberg Child Study Center, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, 14 Kaplan Street, PO Box 559, Petah Tiqwa 49202, Israel.


Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a relatively common developmental neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by a 22q11 microdeletion. There is an extensive variability in the phenotypic expression of this disease. The most common psychiatric disorder in VCFS is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), affecting 35-55% of patients. This study investigated the association of familial, developmental, and physical factors with the occurrence of ADHD in 51 patients with nonfamilial VCFS. Twenty-one patients (41.2%) were diagnosed with ADHD. There was a significantly greater prevalence of ADHD in the first-degree relatives of the patients with ADHD than in those without (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 1.6-22.1, P = 0.006). No differences were noted between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups in mean Obstetric Complication Scale Score, gestational age, birth weight, age at first words, walking, and achieving bowel control. The two groups also had similar IQ scores (total, verbal, and performance) and had a similar average degree of severity of facial dysmorphism and cardiac and cleft anomalies. These findings indicate that ADHD in VCFS has a genetic contribution and the patients' VCFS-related developmental factors and physical illnesses play a lesser role.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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