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FEBS Lett. 2004 Mar 26;562(1-3):59-64.

Important role of Ser443 in different thermal stability of human glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap-2dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736, South Korea.


Molecular biological studies confirmed that two glutamate dehydrogenase isozymes (hGDH1 and hGDH2) of distinct genetic origin are expressed in human tissues. hGDH1 is heat-stable and expressed widely, whereas hGDH2 is heat-labile and specific for neural and testicular tissues. A selective deficiency of hGDH2 has been reported in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia. We have identified an amino acid residue involved in the different thermal stability of human GDH isozymes. At 45 degrees C (pH 7.0), heat inactivation proceeded faster for hGDH2 (half life=45 min) than for hGDH1 (half-life=310 min) in the absence of allosteric regulators. Both hGDH1 and hGDH2, however, showed much slower heat inactivation processes in the presence of 1 mM ADP or 3 mM L-Leu. Virtually most of the enzyme activity remained up to 100 min at 45 degrees C after treatment with ADP and L-Leu in combination. In contrast to ADP and L-Leu, the thermal stabilities of the hGDH isozymes were not affected by addition of substrates or coenzymes. In human GDH isozymes, the 443 site is Arg in hGDH1 and Ser in hGDH2. Replacement of Ser by Arg at the 443 site by cassette mutagenesis abolished the heat lability of hGDH2 with a similar half-life of hGDH1. The mutagenesis at several other sites (L415M, A456G, and H470R) having differences in amino acid sequence between the two GDH isozymes did not show any change in the thermal stability. These results suggest that the Ser443 residue plays an important role in the different thermal stability of human GDH isozymes.

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