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Prostate. 2004 May 1;59(2):190-202.

USF2 is connected to GAAAATATGATA element and associates with androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation in prostate.

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Biocenter Oulu and Research Center for Molecular Endocrinology, WHO Collaborating Centre for Research of Reproductive Health, University of Oulu, Finland.



We have previously identified a GAAAATATGATA binding site (pros) of a transcription factor involved in prostatic and androgen-dependent gene regulation. We now purified the potential factors interacting with the pros and characterized their co-operation with the androgen receptor (AR).


Sequence-specific DNA affinity chromatography, mass-spectrometry, electromobility shift assays, supershifts, glutathione-S-transferase pull-downs, and transient transfections.


Several proteins bound to the pros site, but only upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) was confirmed to be part of the transcription factor complex. Weak interaction was detected between AR and the transcription factor complex. Physical proximity between the androgen response element (ARE) and the pros was shown to be important for their co-operation. In the presence of pros and androgen, AR achieves its maximal efficiency even at low concentrations.


The protein complex binding to the GAAAATATGATA site does not have a significant independent function, but may interact with AR if GAAAATATGATA is physically close to the ARE and enhances the transactivation function of AR.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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