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Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Mar 15;10(6):2044-51.

Id-1 and Id-2 proteins as molecular markers for human prostate cancer progression.

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  • 1California Pacific Medical Center, Cancer Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94115, USA.



Id proteins are dominant-negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control malignant cell behavior in many different tissues. This study aimed to identify the potential role of Id-1 and Id-2 proteins as molecular makers for prostate cancer progression.


Using the technique of immunohistochemistry, we determined Id-1 and Id-2 expression in a panel of 67 human prostate biopsies. We also manipulated Id-1 and Id-2 expression in LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines and determined the effects on invasion in vitro, matrix metalloproteinase secretion, and proliferation.


Both Id-1 and Id-2 proteins were up-regulated during human prostate cancer progression in vivo and were overexpressed in highly aggressive prostate cancer cells. In vitro, constitutive expression of Id-1, and to a lesser extent Id-2, converted nonaggressive LNCaP prostate cancer cells into more proliferative and invasive cells and increased their secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. Conversely, the down-regulation of Id-2 expression in highly metastatic PC3 cells reduced their growth potential and invasiveness.


We propose that both Id-1 and Id-2 proteins control prostate cancer cell phenotypes and could serve as molecular markers of aggressive human prostate cancer.

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