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Immunol Ser. 1992;57:457-84.

Activation of neutrophils by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

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University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York.


A hypothetical pathway of GM-CSF-induced signaling in human neutrophils is presented in Figure 4. The earliest postreceptor events leading to activation of cellular kinases and phosphorylation of c-raf on tyrosine and serine remain a mystery. It is conceivable that downstream events such as the production of LTB4 and PAF as well as other autocrine or paracrine activators of neutrophil-activation function may be involved in neutrophil activation and priming, or they may be downstream events irrelevant in the signaling cascade. The association of GM-CSF signaling and G-proteins, PLD, c-raf, tyrosine kinases, and the Na+/H+ antiport remain poorly understood.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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