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Nat Rev Microbiol. 2003 Oct;1(1):17-24.

The damage-response framework of microbial pathogenesis.

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  • 1Departments of Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases) and Microbiology & Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.


The late twentieth century witnessed the emergence of numerous infectious diseases that are caused by microorganisms that rarely cause disease in normal, healthy immunocompetent hosts. The emergence of these diseases shows that the existing concepts of pathogenicity and virulence do not take into account the fact that both the microorganism and the host contribute to microbial pathogenesis. To address this impediment to studies of host-microorganism interactions, we propose a new theoretical approach to understanding microbial pathogenesis, known as the 'damage-response' framework.

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