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Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Apr 1;55(7):692-700.

Gender effects on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults, revisited.

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1
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

This study reexamined gender differences in a large sample of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

METHODS:

We assessed the effects of ADHD, gender, and their interaction on rates of psychiatric comorbidity and cognitive functioning in 219 adults with ADHD who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic over the last 7 years compared with 215 control subjects group-matched to control subjects on age and gender, and ascertained from ongoing family genetic case control adults with ADHD.

RESULTS:

There was no evidence that gender moderated the association between ADHD and other psychiatric disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with cognitive deficits and higher rates of major depression, anxiety, substance use disorders, and antisocial personality disorder.

CONCLUSIONS:

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults is associated with psychiatric and cognitive impairment in both genders. These results bear striking similarities to findings reported in pediatric samples, supporting the validity of ADHD and stressing the importance of identifying and treating the disorder in adulthood.

PMID:
15038997
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopsych.2003.12.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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