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PhIP metabolites in human urine after consumption of well-cooked chicken.

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Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, 7000 East Avenue, L-452, Livermore, CA 94551-9900, USA.


We devised an assay to quantify the metabolites of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in human urine following a single exposure to well-cooked meat. Our method uses LC/MS/MS to detect four metabolites and four deuterated internal standard peaks in a single chromatographic run. N2-OH-PhIP-N2-glucuronide was the most abundant urinary metabolite excreted by the 12 individuals who participated in our study. N2-PhIP glucuronide was the second most abundant metabolite for 8 of the 12 volunteers. The stability of PhIP metabolism over time was studied in three of the volunteers who repeated the assay eight times over a 2.5 year-period. PhIP metabolite excretion varied in each subject over time, although the rate of excretion was more constant. Our results suggest that quantifying PhIP metabolites should make future studies of individual susceptibility and dietary interventions possible.

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