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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Dec;1010:237-48.

Convergence of the NF-kappaB and interferon signaling pathways in the regulation of antiviral defense and apoptosis.

Author information

1
Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Departments of Microbiology and Immunology and Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada H3T 1E2. john.hiscott@mcgill.ca

Abstract

The ubiquitously expressed interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) is directly activated following virus infection and functions as a key activator of the immediate-early Type 1 interferon (IFN) genes. Using DNA microarray analysis (8,556 genes) in Jurkat T cells inducibly expressing constitutively active IRF-3, several target genes directly regulated by IRF-3 were identified. Among the genes upregulated by IRF-3 were transcripts for a subset of known IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including ISG56, which functions as an inhibitor of translation initiation. Phosphorylation of C-terminal Ser/Thr residues--(382)GGASSLENTVDLHISNSHPLSLTSDQY(408)-is required for IRF-3 activation. Using C-terminal point mutations and a novel phosphospecific antibody, Ser396 was characterized as the minimal phosphoacceptor site required in vivo for IRF-3 activation following Sendai virus (SeV) infection, expression of viral nucleocapsid, or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) treatment. The identity of the virus-activated kinase (VAK) activity that targets and activates IRF-3 and IRF-7 has remained a critical missing link in the understanding of interferon signaling. We report that the IKK-related kinases-IKKepsilon/TBK-1-are components of VAK that mediate IRF-3 and IRF-7 phosphorylation and thus functionally link the NF-kappaB and IRF pathways in the development of the antiviral response.

PMID:
15033728
DOI:
10.1196/annals.1299.042
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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