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Immunity. 2004 Mar;20(3):337-47.

Structural and functional analysis of the costimulatory receptor programmed death-1.

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Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 USA.

Erratum in

  • Immunity. 2004 May;20(5):651.


PD-1, a member of the CD28/CTLA-4/ICOS costimulatory receptor family, delivers negative signals that have profound effects on T and B cell immunity. The 2.0 A crystal structure of the extracellular domain of murine PD-1 reveals an Ig V-type topology with overall similarity to the CTLA-4 monomer; however, there are notable differences in regions relevant to function. Our structural and biophysical data show that PD-1 is monomeric both in solution as well as on cell surface, in contrast to CTLA-4 and other family members that are all disulfide-linked homodimers. Furthermore, our structure-based mutagenesis studies identify the ligand binding surface of PD-1, which displays significant differences compared to those present in the other members of the family.

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