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Radiographics. 2004 Mar-Apr;24(2):343-56.

CT with 3D rendering of the tendons of the foot and ankle: technique, normal anatomy, and disease.

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  • 1Department of Radiology, 0279, Indiana University School of Medicine, 550 N University Blvd, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5253, USA.


Three-dimensional rendering of computed tomographic data with volume rendering (VR), shaded surface display (SSD), and maximum intensity projection has been performed for over 20 years. In the foot and ankle, no one image reformatting technique is satisfactory for displaying every anatomic relationship or disease process. Two-dimensional multiplanar reformatted (MPR) images are the basic images used for diagnosis. MPR images are especially useful for identifying small fractures. VR is useful for demonstrating the relationships between ankle tendons and the underlying osseous structures, and SSD is useful when fractures extend to the articular cortex and a disarticulated view is desired. Three-dimensional images are helpful in patients with congenital deformities, arthritis, and trauma.

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